Letter of Recommendation (LOR): Sample, Format, Template, Writing Tips, Common Mistakes


Subhashri Roy
Updated on Jun 06, 2023 01:53 PM IST

A Letter of Recommendation (LOR) is a document that adds extra value to one's college or university application. Scroll through to learn everything about a LOR, its types, the format of a good LOR, tips to make a LOR request and so on.

Letter of Recommendation (LOR): Sample, Format, Template, Writing Tips, Common Mistakes

Nearly all overseas candidates need two to three LORs from any of the faculty members or former employers who have had employment with the candidate and are already well-acquainted with their skills at work. LORs are important to universities abroad since they discuss the prospective applicant's personality, express support for the applicant, and highlight qualities that render them an outstanding applicant. 

Despite the LOR's unquestionably true worth, writing one might initially feel overwhelming and appear as a significant obligation. Nevertheless, with a lot of forethought, preparation, and time, applicants might succeed in obtaining outstanding letters of recommendation that may benefit them in securing a place at their preferred institution overseas. 

While some institutions abroad leave it up to the student and their referees to produce LOR based on their format, numerous educational institutions typically give a LOR template or structure for every prospective student to adhere to. This article will explain the fundamentals of a LOR, various types of LORS, their structure or format, how to request one from your previous employer or faculty member, and so on.

What is a Letter of Recommendation (LOR)?

A letter of recommendation (LOR) or a recommendation letter is a document used to add extra weight to one's college or university application. In a LOR, the writer assesses the qualities and potential of an applicant or the person being recommended to join a particular course or university. This often includes details about the applicant’s personality, community involvement, work ethic, academic achievements, character references, personal details and more.

Letters of recommendation are usually requested to be written by a supervisor, teacher, employer, colleague, or friend. Generally addressed to a university admissions officer or a new employer (in case of an employment LOR), letters of recommendation can also be issued to the person/student being recommended who then submits them to the university.

Did you know that we have a team of experts to help students write impressive LORs, SOPs, Personal Statements, etc. that boost their chances of admission? You may get in touch with our experts to know how to write a good LOR.

Get Expert Tips on Preparing LORs for Universities Abroad!

Types of Letters of Recommendation

Broadly, letters of recommendation can be divided into the following three types. Here is an overview of each of these three types along with information about who uses them and why and whom they ask to write a LOR:

Academic Letter of Recommendation

Academic letters of recommendation are used by applicants for admission to higher education institutions. During undergraduate or graduate admissions, especially to overseas institutions, students are expected to submit at least one (as mentioned) letter of recommendation.

Academic letters of recommendation are requested from teachers, deans, coaches, principals or any education professional who is familiar with the applicant’s academic experience. An academic LOR, again, has several types, including:

  • College recommendation letters, 

  • part-time/full-time job recommendation letters such as the role of a teaching assistant at the university,

  • Letters to obtain financial aid/scholarships, etc.

Professional Letter of Recommendation

Recommendation letters issued by employers or clients are termed professional letters of recommendation or professional LORs. Professional LORs are usually required for postgraduate courses where work experience is mandatory for admission purposes. These LORs are directly submitted to the university via the recommenders. In some cases, the universities may contact the recommenders directly or send a questionnaire to be filled out by them. These types of questionnaire LORs are more common for management, MBA, and executive MBA programmes.

A professional LOR contains information about employment history, performance on the job, work ethic, personal accomplishments and skills. It can be issued by previous employers or reporting managers. In rare cases, some universities might also accept LORs from coworkers if there are no alternatives for a supervisor.

Character References

Character references or recommendations are often used when applying for new accommodations, child adoption or some legal situations. These are often written by people who have had a chance to work, study or experience a crucial part of their lives with the person being recommended. These may include neighbours, doctors, business associates, former employers, teachers, landlords and so on.

Apart from the different types of LORs, you may come across course-specific LORs when it is time for application submission. This means that depending on the type of programme or course you are applying to, the type of LOR required will also change. There are majorly three types of course-specific LORs:

  • Undergraduate (UG) LOR: Also known as the LOR for bachelor's abroad, a UG LOR is required for undergraduate programmes. Students completing Class 12 need to submit at least academic LORs from bachelor's courses abroad.
  • MS LOR: As evident, a LOR for MS programmes is required for students applying to postgraduate programmes such as MS, MSc, MEng, MTech, MArch, and so on. MS applicants are usually required to submit at least one professional LOR or two academic LORs.
  • MBA LOR: For business or management programmes, an MBA LOR is the right choice. This type of LOR comes in handy wherever practical experience is required as a prerequisite for admission. In such cases, professional LORs are required that can highlight the work experience and skills of a candidate.

A good LOR would have two factors in check, the first is the content format and the second is the page layout. Given below is the letter of recommendation format, mentioned in detail: 

Content Layout of a LOR

So, before we structure our LOR, we need to understand a great LOR focuses on seven basic sections or parts:

Letter of Recommendation (LOR) Fomat

Let us discuss the kind of content to be included in each paragraph:

Part 1: Contact Details

This comes on the letterhead, which is right at the top of the page. What it will include is information such as the applicant’s name, address and contact information. In case one does not have a letterhead, one can put this information on the top left corner of the very first page.

Or else, add information like current date, addressee name, addressee title, university name and address on the top right side of the page.

Part 2: Salutation

Like any other letter, one needs to begin a LOR by addressing the reader or the person or body to whom the letter is addressed. It is extremely important to first learn who is going to read the letter so it can be tailored accordingly. In case, the letter is to be sent to multiple universities or multiple programs, the letter can be addressed by writing “to whom it may concern”.

Part 3: Introduction

This should be a brief introduction and the first paragraph of the letter, telling the reader about oneself, their profession, expertise and relationship with the applicant. The recommender should also let the reader know how long they have known the applicant and what their current and first impressions of the applicant were. What also helps a LOR stand out is mentioning why the recommender chose to write the letter or their intentions which will help the reader trust the recommendation.

Part 4: Outline the Applicant’s Merits

From qualifications, extracurricular activities, academic specialities, and personality to skills and awards or achievements, this part of the recommendation should talk all about the applicant. The applicant should make sure to provide the recommender with all the required information such as their academic transcripts, Grade Point Average (GPA), class participation, challenges met projects, hobbies, updated CV, list of achievements, awards or recognitions and so on.

It should also include the student’s area of interest or which subject they are good at or interested in. It should be able to persuade the reader that the applicant is genuinely passionate about the programme that they are applying for.

Apart from these, the letter should further have details about the applicant’s personal qualities, attitude or zeal to move forward or improve and excel in the field of study. Another important point to mention here is the student’s future career goals or aspirations which will make them an important part of the university.

Letters that compare the applicant with their academic peers are often the most useful.

Part 5: How the Applicant Will Add Value to the Program or University

The writer, here, may try and endorse the applicant in a subtle yet direct way. A LOR becomes more effective when the applicant’s academic background is in some way related to the university’s mission or the program's requirements.

Part 6: Conclude with a CTA

The recommender, here, should directly mention that they are recommending the student for the programme, highlighting the student’s potential contributions to the university. It shall help if the writer has a clear understanding of why the student is applying for the program or the intended university. 

The writer may also encourage the reader to get in touch with them should they have any questions or queries about the applicant.

Part 7: Closing/Signature

The LOR can be closed by adding the recommender’s signature along with their contact details. 

Check out the following video on how to write an impressive LOR for universities abroad that will help you impress the Admission Committee (AdCom):

Page Format for a LOR

Most applicants often ignore paying attention to the page layout or page format of a LOR. Although the content is more important, a good presentation of it will make it even better.

DO NOT go beyond one to two pages in length: One page with concrete or to-the-point information is enough for an evaluator to consider an application.

Keep the font basic: Do not use fonts that do not look professional. The ideal fonts for a LOR would be Times New Roman, Arial, Garamond and Helvetica. 

Use a 12-point font: The font size should be too big or too small. A 12-point font would maximise readability and help in utilising the entire page.

Maintain left alignment and 1”-11/2” margins to fit the content on one page and give it an organised look.

Even though the names of documents required to study abroad remain the same, their content and style may change according to the person or panel they are addressed to. In that case, it becomes crucial to make sure you are meeting the requirements of the concerned LOR.

How one requests and to whom one requests a letter of recommendation influences what the recommender writes in the letter to a great extent. Here are some of the tips when requesting LORs:

  • The applicant should make sure to meet with potential recommenders before giving them the task. During the meeting, the student should discuss their academic goals, and why they think the individual should write them a letter. The most important thing here is to ask them if they would be willing to write a strong recommendation.

  • One should provide the recommender with the list of universities and colleges the letter of recommendation would go to along with their application deadlines and specific LOR formats if any.

  • The applicant should also list down all the awards, achievements, titles, GPA, courses taken, extracurricular activities, and jobs they have done. In addition, they should give the recommender copies of their transcripts, and admission essays, among other things.

  • The student should make sure to communicate their academic and career goals directly, and the reasons why they were applying to these universities and the chosen programme of study.

  • One should never wait until the last minute to get a LOR. It is important to invest a good amount of time, which could easily be around two months.

The following are the most Common Mistakes to Avoid in LOR that are made by applicants:

Picking the Wrong Referee: Students should be cautious about whom they pick as their recommender. More often than not, a wrong referee worsens an application. 

Making it another SOP or Resume: An LOR should not be similar to an SOP or resume. While there will be a number of overlaps, a LOR should primarily outline the applicant's personality which the referee knows personally. Repeating a resume or Statement of Purpose (SOP) on a letter of recommendation will let the evaluator believe that the applicant and the recommender do not share a good relationship.

Not Following the Right Format: Like a good SOP requires a format, a good LOR demands well-structured content.

Exaggerating: By no means, shall the LOR talk about the same facts again and again or have a lack of relevant information.  

Politically Incorrect: It is extremely important to be mindful of things that might be hurtful such as talking about a particular gender, race or disability.

Spelling and Grammatical Errors: Before submitting the letters of recommendation, one should review them and look for speaking and grammatical errors, if any.

Keeping it Too Short: An LOR should have at least 500 to 600 words, written on an A4 size page. The word limit should be crisp, but it should also be long enough to describe the applicant and cover the important points about their academic history. For more, check - How to Maintain Grammar & Word Limits in Application Essays?

Avoid Plagiarism: One of the most important points to remember while drafting any application document. Be it a LOR, SOP or resume, never copy information from other students' applications or the internet. Foreign universities take strict action against any plagiarism content found on the college application.

Now that you are familiar with the contents, format, and types of LOR, you can start drafting your document. Remember to be honest, concise, and clear in your approach to writing a LOR.

From shortlisting universities to helping prepare the perfect LOR, our admissions counsellors have helped thousands of Indian students study abroad. For any queries, you may write to us at abroad@collegedekho.com.

Need Expert Help to Craft a Perfect LOR, SOP, LOM, PS, etc?


Can I put false information in my Letter of Recommendation?

Be certain that you only provide genuine and correct information with your references. While you want a letter of recommendation to reflect well on you, it's even more crucial that these recommendations highlight your genuine qualities and talents. A recommendation letter might assist a school or company see why you'd be a good match for their programme or organisation. If you pick references who are familiar with you, they will be able to talk positively and authentically about your character, achievements, and credentials.

What is the right time to ask for a Letter of Recommendation?

It takes time for a faculty or employer to submit a reference, so request one as soon as feasible. While applying to academic programmes, attempt to get recommendations four to six weeks before the deadline. While you may have less time to get recommendations for a job application, it is still important to contact your references as soon as possible so they can send you a quality letter. To allow for processing lags or delays, offer your references a deadline that is earlier than the application deadline.

Can I use a reference in my LOR without the permission of the Recommender?

No, you must not! Make sure you ask someone before using them as a reference on an application. This is professional politeness that shows the individual you value them. Explain why you are requesting a recommendation and ask if they are comfortable sending you a letter. Make your request during a time when they are available, such as during a professor's office hours. To use someone as a reference, you must first seek their permission to ensure that they agree to vouch for your talents and abilities.

Is it necessary to keep copies of our Letters of Recommendation or LOR before submitting them to the universities?

That certainly is! After you receive your letters of recommendation, create duplicates and save them wherever you can find them later. This step guarantees that you may supply a duplicate letter if one is lost or forgotten throughout the application process. If you decide to apply for another similar job or academic programme, you may wish to utilise the same letter of recommendation. In this scenario, seek permission from your reference before using their letter for another application.

Is it necessary to submit Letters of Recommendation by the application deadline?

Each department has its own set of deadlines and expectations for what must be delivered by the deadline. Several departments insist on receiving all paperwork and letters of recommendation by the application date. Some departments accept supporting papers and test scores after the application deadline. Please contact the department to which you are applying directly to find out what is needed before the deadline.

Can one use the same Letter of Recommendation for more than one application to study abroad?

No, you must submit separate letters of recommendation for each application. Because recommenders are required to submit a reference based on the specific programme for which you are applying, letters of recommendation are unique to each application. There will be no moving or copying of recommendation letters from one application to another.

What is the difference between a reference letter and a letter of recommendation (LOR)?

The difference between a reference letter and a letter of recommendation is that it emphasises a candidate's particular skills, qualities, and overall quality of the person being recommended. On the other hand, a reference letter is an endorsement of the candidate's moral character and personality.

How should I start writing a letter of recommendation?

Your recommendation letter should start with a salutation that thanks the Admissions Committee or reader for reading it. Aim to address them by name whenever appropriate. If this is not possible, start your letter with a formal, business-like salutation like ‘To whom it may concern’.

How should I end a letter of recommendation?

Your recommendation letter should be signed at the end with your name, position, and contact details. By adding these, the reader of the letter will know how to get in touch with you to learn more about you or any other documents required.

What should an ideal letter of recommendation include?

An ideal letter of recommendation should include some fundamental information about the candidate that helps the Admissions Committee to paint a clear picture of them. Here are a few of them:

  • An opening paragraph that includes the candidate's name and the position they are vying for.

  • A thorough explanation of the writer's relationship with the candidate.

  • A sincere endorsement of the candidate's work.

  • A definite endorsement of the candidate.

  • A signature of the writer with their contact details on it.

What are the tips to write a good letter of recommendation?

The following are some tips to write a good letter of recommendation:

  • Keep it relevant

  • Include specific statistics, anecdotes, and facts 

  • Use a positive, friendly, yet professional tone

  • Use the right format and length

  • Use active voice

  • Quantify the strengths

  • Focus on one or two qualities

  • Create a new letter for each recommendation

  • Proofread

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